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Automotive interior and exterior commonly used plastics and their applications

Automotive interior and exterior commonly used plastics and their applications

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Automotive interior and exterior parts commonly used plastics are mainly PP, PU, ​​ABS (including ABS and PC + ABS), PE, PA and POM, etc., of which the largest amount of PP materials.
 
Figure Car interior drawing status map
 
1. PP
PP Chinese name polypropylene, is a polymer made from free radical polymerization of propylene monomer. It is a non-toxic, odorless, odorless, high density, no side chain, high crystallinity milky white linear poly
 
Compound. It is also the largest plastic material for interior and exterior trim components.
 
advantage:
 
1) Low density (lightest plastic), light weight;
 
2) The water absorption rate is less than 0.02% and it is almost completely free of moisture;
 
3) High impact strength, good processing fluidity, easy molding, good product appearance;
 
4) Rich sources of raw materials and low prices;
 
5) Good temperature resistance (but poor heat load deformation);
 
6) Good chemical resistance.
 
Disadvantages:
 
Low-temperature environment is brittle and poor weatherability (can be improved by modifying, adding additives, etc.);
 
Crystalline materials have high shrinkage and poor dimensional stability.
 
application:
 
PP-type materials are mainly used for parts of the body, such as instrument panel body, sub-instrument panel body, glove box, storage box, door guard body, pillar guard body, sill pressure plate, seat guard plate,
 
Luggage guards, passenger handrails, front/rear bumper skins, side skirt guards, front wind window trim panels, fenders, etc.
 
Fiber-reinforced PP-type materials have high rigidity, especially long glass fiber reinforcement and glass fiber mat modification. They are used in structural parts and are mainly replaced by metals. They are used in spare wheel compartments and seat bones.
Frames, door modules and other components.
 
 
Figure PP-LGF material door inner panel
 
 
Figure PP applied to bumper
 
2. ABS
ABS is an amorphous material and is an acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer. Combines acrylonitrile (heat resistance, chemical resistance, high stiffness), butadiene (toughness), styrene (good processability,
 
Good dyeability, poor weatherability, and easy oxidation. Excellent performance of the three monomers. The characteristics of ABS are mainly determined by the proportion of the three monomers and the molecular structure in the two phases, changing the ratio of the three components, and the combination of
 
The method, particle size, can produce different varieties.
 
advantage:
 
Surface decoration and secondary processing, including painting, plating, welding, bonding, etc.;
 
Good dimensional stability and creep resistance.
 
Disadvantages:
 
Poor chemical resistance, poor UV resistance (butadiene component), high gloss.
 
The heat resistance is not high and the heat distortion temperature is low.
 
application:
 
ABS is mainly used for decorative parts such as spray paint, electroplating, water transfer printing, IMD, etc. on interior and exterior parts, such as decorative paint strips, electroplated bright strips, electroplated grids, electroplated signs, rear view
 
Mirror shell and so on. At the same time, due to its dimensional stability, especially the high temperature stability, it is also used in the combination of instrument cover, steering column cover, door guard middle panel, switch button, outlet panel
 
Wait. Blow-grade ABS can also be used for spoilers.
 
Precautions:
 
Part temperature requirements are the major considerations in determining the choice of different heat-resistant grades of ABS. In addition, due to the poor weather resistance of ABS, it is generally not used for exposure to direct sunlight in external trim pieces.
 
 
Figure ABS applied to the steering wheel cover
 
 
 
High performance electroplated ABS for automotive grille
 
3. PC+ABS
PC+ABS is an alloy plastic blended with PC and ABS. PC and ABS blends can combine the excellent performance of PC and ABS.
 
advantage:
 
Heat resistance, toughness, impact strength (especially for high strength structural parts) and flame retardancy;
 
Good processability, apparent quality and low density.
 
The unit cost of the material is reduced and the viscosity of the solution is reduced.
 
As an alloy of two amorphous plastics, the advantages of PC+ABS are excellent overall performance and no obvious disadvantages.
 
application:
 
PC+ABS is used in some decorative parts that require certain heat resistance and high impact requirements, such as electroplated door handles, center console decorative plates, and so on. Due to excellent low temperature performance, dimensional stability
 
And excellent adhesion with foam, PC + ABS is also often used in high-end car dashboard body.
 
 
 
Figure PC+ABS applied to central control panel/CD bracket
 
Figure PC+ABS alloy applied to door handle
 
4. POM
POM is a semi-crystalline plastic, which is called polyoxymethylene in Chinese. POM is divided into homopolymerization and copolymerization. Homopolymer POM is a homopolymer of trioxane or formaldehyde; copolymer POM is trioxymethylene and 1,3-dimer
 
Oxycyclopentane copolymers. High polyformaldehyde crystallinity, mechanical strength, rigidity, heat distortion temperature and other indicators better than copolymerization of formaldehyde, copolymerization of formaldehyde low melting point, thermal stability, chemical resistance, flow
 
Dynamic properties, processability and continuous use temperature are all superior to homopolyoxymethylene.
 
The end group of POM is hemiacetal (-CH2OH). When the temperature is higher than 100°C, the end group is easy to be broken. Generally, it needs to be stabilized by the end capping treatment to increase its thermal stability and heat-resistant use temperature.
 
advantage:
 
High wear resistance, specific strength and specific rigidity close to the metal, good fatigue resistance.
 
Disadvantages:
 
Temperature is not high, poor flame retardancy, shrinkage.
 
application:
 
POM is mainly used for parts that have creep resistance, fatigue resistance, high wear resistance, or self-lubrication requirements, such as bumper mounting brackets, opening handles, snaps, sealing internal components, glass
 
Lifting system and so on.
 
Figure Ultra High Viscosity POM for Glass Lifter Components
 
 
 
Figure POM applied to speaker grille
 
The main plastics used for interior and exterior automotive parts are PP, PU, ​​ABS (including ABS and PC+ABS), PE, PA, and POM, among which PP is the most used material.
5. HDPE
HDPE is a high density polyethylene, a kind of thermoplastic resin with high crystallinity and non-polarity. It is an important branch material of PE. Its performance is mainly affected by density, molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and
 
Addition of four factors.
 
advantage:
Cold resistance, environmental stress crack resistance and barrier properties are excellent.
 
Disadvantages:
Poor high temperature performance.
 
application:
HDPE is applied to blow molded parts on interior and exterior trim parts, mainly for dashboard air duct systems. Generally, HDPE with relatively low melting index is selected and its melt strength is high. The main performance requirements of the air duct for HDPE are
 
Temperature resistance, including high temperature, low temperature and temperature stability. Other properties require HDPE to have low spontaneity and low odor.
 
Figure HDPE applied to plastic fuel tank
 
6. PA
PA, commonly known as nylon, is a generic term for thermoplastic resins containing the repeating amide gene -[NHCO]- in the main chain. Aliphatic nylon is the most important species, its name is made of synthetic monomer
 
The number of carbon atoms in the body depends on the most commonly used PA6 and PA66.
 
advantage:
The main advantages of pure PA6 and PA66 are wear resistance, good self-lubrication, good toughness, and the greater the proportion of methylene/amide groups, the better the flexibility.
 
Disadvantages:
Water absorption, poor dimensional stability, the greater the proportion of amide bonds, the higher the water absorption.
 
As a semi-crystalline plastic, PA6 and PA66 have many times higher performances after glass fiber reinforcement, especially rigidity and heat resistance, but the introduction of short glass fiber also causes the problems of orientation warping and surface floatation.
 
application:
Nylon mainly exerts its advantages of wear-resistance, self-lubricity and rigidity in interior and exterior trim parts.
 
Pure PA66 is widely used in buckles, straps and gears. Glass-reinforced nylon is used in structural parts such as outer handles, inner handles, rearview mirror bases, and airbag mounting brackets. test
 
Considering the high temperature capability of nylon materials, most nylon materials are used in the engine compartment. Fiber grade nylon is known as nylon and can be applied to carpets.
 
 
 
Figure Nylon Ties Taken at Randych Booth
 
 
 
Figure Glass fiber reinforced PA6 applied to handle inside and outside the car
 
 
 
Figure PA for automotive oil sump
 
7. PVC
PVC is polyvinyl chloride, which is composed of an amorphous thermoplastic resin made by polymerization of vinyl chloride monomers plus certain additives (such as stabilizers, lubricants, fillers, etc.), and its physical appearance is white.
 
Color powder.
 
advantage:
After adding additives, it has good plasticity and low temperature resistance.
 
Disadvantages:
Pure PVC has high softening/melting temperature, is extremely unstable to heat, easily degradable, and easy to age.
 
application:
PVC plastics are mainly applied to the dashboard skins and decorative panel skins on door panels on interior and exterior trim parts, while some gear levers are made of PVC plastic. Need to consider PVC heat aging, light resistance
 
Color fastness and low temperature resistance.
 
 
 
Figure PVC used for instrument panel skin
 
8. PBT
PBT is polybutylene terephthalate, a semi-crystalline plastic belonging to the polyester series, together with PET collectively referred to as thermoplastic polyester, or saturated polyester.
 
advantage:
The best performance of PBT lies in its electrical properties and is not affected by changes in humidity. Glass fiber reinforced, its strength and heat resistance have been greatly improved, can be used for structural parts.
 
Disadvantages:
Its hydrolysis in the high-temperature and high-humidity environment may lead to long-term use performance degradation. Therefore, the water content during processing must be very low, and some applications should use hydrolysis-resistant grades.
 
application:
Pure PBT or PBT with low glass fiber content is mostly used in electrical devices, such as connectors, etc. PBT with high glass fiber content is mostly used in structural parts such as mirror bases and luggage rack supports. PBT
 
Gold material PC+PBT can be used for bumper energy absorbing blocks, door handles, fuel filler caps, etc.
 
PBT with a high glass content is used as a structural component, because the direct replacement of metal or glass fiber reinforced nylon, the main performance requirements for the mechanical strength.
 
 
 
Figure PBT applied to headlight decorative frame
 
 
 
Figure PC/PBT alloy used for oiling kettle cover
 
9. PU
PU, polyurethane, is a polymer having urethane chain repeat structural units made from the reaction of isocyanate with a polyol.
 
advantage:
The main advantages of polyurethane foams are the ability to compress deformation, good resilience, and good acoustic properties.
 
Disadvantages:
In view of the environmental pressure, polyurethanes need to be improved in terms of environmentally friendly foaming agents, reduction of VOCs and intermediate free toluene diisocyanate (TDI) content.
 
application:
Polyurethanes are mainly used in car seat foams, instrument panel soft foam layers, carpet/front wall sound insulation mat sound absorption layers. In addition, rigid polyurethane sheets are used in combination with glass fiber for a large number of composite sheets.
 
On the ceiling base material.
 
 
 
Figure Polyurethane for car roof
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